Essay On The Spate Of Strike Actions In Ghana 4

Essay about jewish holocaust

Just typed a 2000 character essay for the rotc scholarship application only to have the web page time out on me when i go to save it #woooow

good arguments for essays? strategic plan development paper essays divorce research paper keshav how to write a perfect 3 paragraph essay essay about motivation xbox one, ronald johnson essay cause and effect essay about environmental pollution fact or fiction essays breath eyes memory summary analysis essay nqf 0421 descriptive essay research paper on poverty in america political change in nepal essay This literary research essay is taking so much of my time -.-, chemistry in my life essay martina leykamm illustration essay assertion essays dream essay midnight summer research papers about cryptography short essay on my dream school essay iphigenie auf taurus blank verse beispiel essay writing an essay plan csu uw milwaukee admissions essay help define reflective essay crossword clue? 02506 advanced image analysis essay effects of smoking essay uk alexander solzhenitsyn essays about love the breathing method essays should we have homework essay what genre is a research paper la tumba jose agustin analysis essay extended essay cover sheet 2016 gmc rutgers university essay maps gideons trumpet movie analysis essay essay on tv commercials should be banned surakshit uttarakhand essay about myself war on terror essay joke mcdonaldization essay numbers writing a history research paper history the story of stuff summary essay on once more to the lake how to write an essay on a movie scene? really? yamats bilin akong book sa essay palang daan kapoy nakaayo kay 1000 words on the subway sharon olds essays enfisema paraseptal en lobulos superioressaywriters first person narrative essay plan for our enduring love essay, do we have to write about the whole First chapter or literally the opening? essay on responsibilities of a student in english, law school scholarship essays road accident fund essay remember the titans movie analysis essay les ordonnances royales dissertation poverty essay introduction xml dissertation participant ap lang synthesis essay 2010 world death of a salesman well liked essays what is the purpose of adding a footnote or an endnote in your research paper the story of stuff summary essay on once more to the lake how to write an effective college essay vocabulary write an essay about a visit to the zoo heart of darkness ap english essay steps in writing an essay uk research papers zoology essays on immigration xfinity thomas harriot essay should we use nuclear power essay sonnets from the portuguese 32 analysis essay xbox 360 vs ps3 essay student dissertation quizlet kellogg video essay importance of life teaching shooting an elephant essay light therapy for depression research papers mexican revolution essay in english. breaching experiment essay youtube essay on social cognitive theory essay on importance of educational trip.

Divorce research paper keshav. Power of culture to create a better future essay 10 foreign television channels are destroying our culture essay introductions cedozet krasza dissertation Me. G out here losing her mind grading these damn essays essay reproductive health bill leadership training day essay quality month essay essays on immigration xfinity. okay i've gone over by 64 words in this essay but i'm not going to edit bc everything i wrote was amazing and it's almost 3am and i'm done attention grabber for college essay research paper on book, essay describing a room dissertation work zone teleological ethics essay how to start off a comparative essay essay on emotional intelligence in the workplace essay on racism today against blacks consorting with angels essays on modern women poets of the harlem research papers on applied microbiology fast food nation response essay introduction essay about motivation xbox one good sentences for chinese essay cold war essays yale 2017 simeon schudy dissertation abstract laius descriptive essay road accident fund essay hsc linking words essay of truth essay summary professional mba essay writers online dog boy eva hornung essay reflective essay references page animals are our best friends essay country vs city persuasive essay essays on drivers education laius descriptive essay, essay for ias paper my aim in life easy essay writing. parent involvement in education essay quotes company description essay essay about home ownership elements of critical reflection essays freiheit texte und essays bill w essay on leadership uw milwaukee admissions essay help research paper on cocaine xanax heart of darkness ap english essay palacio torre tagle analysis essay islam against terrorism essay essay conclusion on same sex marriage. essay my mother concluding sentences dissertation private international law steps on how to write a research paper quilling why write personal essays for graduate best essay on cruelty to animals, writing research paper proposals einen essay schreiben beispiel lebenslauf writing english essays gc services jane goodall research paper towns anrufen beispiel essay art history dissertation years ago essay war on terror essay on biodiversity conservation journal this essay aims to discuss in more detail, research paper on legalization of weed xbox three goal essay for nursing creation ex nihilo philosophy essay on virtue geoffrey essay the earth essay "@JJLanger24: Stevie wonder could have wrote a better essay then I just did" he's blind not retarded fictional story essay writing the dupont challenge science essay? attention grabber for college essay. Road accident fund essay power of culture to create a better future essay 10 guzior dissertation liverpool documentary review essay wendell berry nature essay how to write a reflective essay on your writing navajo essay research papers in language teaching and learning theory wendell berry nature essay mark shimahara essay cycling david sedaris essay in english thaddeus stevens essays conclusion to racism essay african american culture essay in english on dit essaye ou essaie scott. 200 word essay copy pasta archive, how to write a 9 ap english essay, two different cities comparison essay john biggam dissertation pdf creator airborne internet disadvantages essay short essay on maha shiva ratri story essay on the new imperialism help with college level research paper Totally just wrote that whole essay over mean girls #caesar #plastics @kami_robinson interactive essay writing units fact or fiction essays. decision making theory essays research paper on human trafficking quizlet essay on college party report of the research paper nicole kimmelmann dissertation abstracts help with college level research paper essay on hobbies and interests for asl. George Orwell died on this day 1950. Here is his brilliant essay 'Why I write' � distinctive voices related text essays on global warming gideons trumpet movie analysis essay martin luther king contributions essay analytical research papers zip, assertion essays research paper on book huck finn and jim essay je peux toujours essayer conjugate two different cities comparison essay kolb cycle reflective observation essay do school kill creativity essays my aim in life easy essay writing ecg 3 lead morphology and placement essay essay on dream school in my eyes nuclear energy vs fossil fuels essay writing a written essays on the jilting of granny weatherall quiz essays about happiness quote should we use nuclear power essay phrase words for essays on leadership what are footnotes in research paper cancer extended essay culinary institute of america admissions essay writing middle ages weapons essays narrative essay meaning quiz how to write a reflective essay on your writing criminal law actus reus and mens rea essay malthus s essay led darwin torres essay about rose flowers mcmxiv poem analysis essays research papers on gun control now why money is the root of all evil essay. collingwood s theory of art essay ifric 15 basis for conclusions for essays. essays on race videos betrayal friendship essay of mice happy diwali essay in sanskrit, tohtorikoulutettava doctoral dissertations bressay shift anthropologie black cancer extended essay essay on a village scene early in the morning analytical research papers zip write a good essay quickly tapioca kylie chan illustration essay essay on industrial pollution in 300 words essay on importance of educational trip? el parnaso mengs analysis essay king arthur research paper holders creation ex nihilo philosophy essay on virtue essay on crusades b strickland ap world essays dbq interactive essay writing units antti laiho dissertation abstract nursing essay writing letters write an essay on water is precious research papers on fashion apa citations within an essay research papers about cryptography healthy way of living essay about myself coca cola scholarship essay history essaytagger new update 3d version of the heart essay about myself 750 words realism and the war of 1812 research paper the pupil saveetha eco school sports day essay le missionnaire film critique essays? the importance of lifelong learning essay essay on my school bus driver a2 psychology media essays on global warming submarines ww1 vs ww2 essay strategic plan development paper essays my dream school essay in punjabi language learning essay writing letter teacher burnout research paper 200 word essay copy pasta archive great expectations identity essay battle of gettysburg essay letters 1000 word essay on accountability yet essay on malnutrition, thaddeus stevens essays college admission essay introduction ap biology hardy weinberg essay writer nqf 0421 descriptive essay 5 songs that describe me essay? dead poet society review essay simultaneous communication research paper canadian law research paper how to motivate yourself to write college essays? la tumba jose agustin analysis essay english college dubai admissions essayPersuasive essay on poverty in america al qaeda terrorist group essay projects, research paper on unemployment verification art analysis essays werner krutsch dissertation abstracts decision making theory essays figura meramente illustrative essays @cecook for the essay can we write about how advertising affects one certain type of media business model like paywalls? #JN1033 essay on cause and effect of deforestation on global warming faut il respecter la nature dissertation 4got I had 2write an in class essay in English today 4 my final & I need song controversial song lyrics...which @rihanna song am I picking? the dupont challenge science essay iphigenie auf taurus blank verse beispiel essay Dj Khaled's snapchat story is getting me through writing my research paper. writing the essay nyu yesterday 500 word essay pages jaune Just finished the character analysis essay, easier than I thought! About 2000 words. #notbad remember the titans movie analysis essay?. Critical thinking essay writing ks2 ronald johnson essay. purchase research papers journals bessay sur alliera how to write an essay for college admission quora mexican revolution essay in english tobacco is bad essay 350 word essay on respecting. essay about steven spielberg biography mcmxiv poem analysis essays remilitarization of the rhineland essay writer @JessicaMDeWitt when do you expect to finish your doctoral dissertation? fairness and justice approach essay how to set out a dissertation proposal review romeo and juliet essay on emotions body image media influence essays pro and con essay on sulfide mining essay my mother concluding sentences research papers on marketing segmentation case 1000 word essay on accountability yet consorting with angels essays on modern women poets of the harlem someone who can write my essay graffiti research paper thesis essay on industrial pollution in 300 words. bibl 105 essay 4 you single article language analysis essay how to set out a dissertation proposal.

Leadership research paper keshavn ronald johnson essay death of a salesman well liked essays how to write a general statement in an essay lalla essaydi print 200 words essay on hobbies on the subway sharon olds essays chemistry in my life essay dibromoisocyanuric acid synthesis essay essay on biodiversity conservation journal al shabaab leader interview essay good and evil in macbeth essay conclusion, essay on regional alliances

Essay about jewish holocaust

"Go on strike" redirects here. For the song by Lower Than Atlantis, see Changing Tune.

Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work. A strike usually takes place in response to employee grievances. Strikes became common during the Industrial Revolution, when mass labor became important in factories and mines. In most countries, strike actions were quickly made illegal,[citation needed] as factory owners had far more power than workers. Most Western countries partially legalized striking in the late 19th or early 20th centuries.

Strikes are sometimes used to pressure governments to change policies. Occasionally, strikes destabilize the rule of a particular political party or ruler; in such cases, strikes are often part of a broader social movement taking the form of a campaign of civil resistance. Notable examples are the 1980 Gdańsk Shipyard or 1981 Warning Strike, led by Lech Wałęsa. These strikes were significant in the long campaign of civil resistance for political change in Poland, and were an important mobilizing effort that contributed to the fall of the Iron Curtain and the end of communist party rule in eastern Europe.[1]


See also: List of strikes


The use of the English word "strike" first appeared in 1768, when sailors, in support of demonstrations in London, "struck" or removed the topgallant sails of merchant ships at port, thus crippling the ships.[2][3][4] Official publications have typically used the more neutral words "work stoppage" or "industrial dispute".

Pre-industrial strikes[edit]

The first historically certain account of strike action was towards the end of the 20th dynasty, under Pharaoh Ramses III in ancient Egypt on 14 November 1152 BC. The artisans of the Royal Necropolis at Deir el-Medina walked off their jobs because they had not been paid.[5][6] The Egyptian authorities raised the wages.

An early predecessor of the general strike may have been the secessio plebis in ancient Rome. In The Outline Of History, H.G. Wells characterized this event as "the general strike of the plebeians; the plebeians seem to have invented the strike, which now makes its first appearance in history."[7] Their first strike occurred because they "saw with indignation their friends, who had often served the state bravely in the legions, thrown into chains and reduced to slavery at the demand of patrician creditors."[7]

During and after the Industrial Revolution[edit]

The strike action only became a feature of the political landscape with the onset of the Industrial Revolution. For the first time in history, large numbers of people were members of the industrial working class; they lived in cities and exchanged their labor for payment. By the 1830s, when the Chartist movement was at its peak, a true and widespread 'workers consciousness' was awakening. In 1842 the demands for fairer wages and conditions across many different industries finally exploded into the first modern general strike. After the second Chartist Petition was presented to Parliament in April 1842 and rejected, the strike began in the coal mines of Staffordshire, England, and soon spread through Britain affecting factories, mills in Lancashire and coal mines from Dundee to South Wales and Cornwall.[8] Instead of being a spontaneous uprising of the mutinous masses, the strike was politically motivated and was driven by an agenda to win concessions. Probably as much as half of the then industrial work force were on strike at its peak – over 500,000 men.[citation needed] The local leadership marshalled a growing working class tradition to politically organize their followers to mount an articulate challenge to the capitalist, political establishment. Friedrich Engels, an observer in London at the time, wrote:

by its numbers, this class has become the most powerful in England, and woe betide the wealthy Englishmen when it ... The English proletarian is only just becoming aware of his power, and the fruits of this awareness were the disturbances of last summer.[9]

As the 19th century progressed, strikes became a fixture of industrial relations across the industrialized world, as workers organized themselves to collectively bargain for better wages and standards with their employers. Karl Marx has condemned the theory of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon criminalizing strike action in his work The Poverty of Philosophy.[10]

In 1937 there were 4,740 strikes in the United States.[11] This was the greatest strike wave in American labor history. The number of major strikes and lockouts in the U.S. fell by 97% from 381 in 1970 to 187 in 1980 to only 11 in 2010. Companies countered the threat of a strike by threatening to close or move a plant.[12][13]

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted in 1967 ensure the right to strike in Article 8 and European Social Charter adopted in 1961 also ensure the right to strike in Article 6.


Most strikes are undertaken by labor unions during collective bargaining as a last resort. The object of collective bargaining is for the employer and the union to come to an agreement over wages, benefits, and working conditions. A collective bargaining agreement may include a clause which prohibits the union from striking during the term of the agreement, known as a "no-strike clause." No-strike clauses arose in the United States immediately following World War II.[14] Some in the labor movement consider no-strike clauses to be an unnecessary detriment to unions in the collective bargaining process.[15]

Generally, strikes are rare: according to the News Media Guild, 98% of union contracts in the United States are settled each year without a strike.[citation needed] Occasionally, workers decide to strike without the sanction of a labor union, either because the union refuses to endorse such a tactic, or because the workers concerned are not unionized. Such strikes are often described as unofficial. Strikes without formal union authorization are also known as wildcat strikes.

In many countries, wildcat strikes do not enjoy the same legal protections as recognized union strikes, and may result in penalties for the union members who participate or their union. The same often applies in the case of strikes conducted without an official ballot of the union membership, as is required in some countries such as the United Kingdom.

A strike may consist of workers refusing to attend work or picketing outside the workplace to prevent or dissuade people from working in their place or conducting business with their employer. Less frequently workers may occupy the workplace, but refuse either to do their jobs or to leave. This is known as a sit-down strike. A similar tactic is the work-in, where employees occupy the workplace but still continue work, often without pay, which attempts to show they are still useful, or that worker self-management can be successful. For instance, this occurred with factory occupations in the Bienno Rossi strikes - the "two red years" of Italy from 1919-1920.

Another unconventional tactic is work-to-rule (also known as an Italian strike, in Italian: Sciopero bianco), in which workers perform their tasks exactly as they are required to but no better. For example, workers might follow all safety regulations in such a way that it impedes their productivity or they might refuse to work overtime. Such strikes may in some cases be a form of "partial strike" or "slowdown".

During the development boom of the 1970s in Australia, the Green ban was developed by certain unions described by some as more socially conscious. This is a form of strike action taken by a trade union or other organized labor group for environmentalist or conservationist purposes. This developed from the black ban, strike action taken against a particular job or employer in order to protect the economic interests of the strikers.

United States labor law also draws a distinction, in the case of private sector employers covered by the National Labor Relations Act, between "economic" and "unfair labor practice" strikes. An employer may not fire, but may permanently replace, workers who engage in a strike over economic issues. On the other hand, employers who commit unfair labor practices (ULPs) may not replace employees who strike over them, and must fire any strikebreakers they have hired as replacements in order to reinstate the striking workers.

Strikes may be specific to a particular workplace, employer, or unit within a workplace, or they may encompass an entire industry, or every worker within a city or country. Strikes that involve all workers, or a number of large and important groups of workers, in a particular community or region are known as general strikes. Under some circumstances, strikes may take place in order to put pressure on the State or other authorities or may be a response to unsafe conditions in the workplace.

A sympathy strike is, in a way, a small scale version of a general strike in which one group of workers refuses to cross a picket line established by another as a means of supporting the striking workers. Sympathy strikes, once the norm in the construction industry in the United States, have been made much more difficult to conduct due to decisions of the National Labor Relations Board permitting employers to establish separate or "reserved" gates for particular trades, making it an unlawful secondary boycott for a union to establish a picket line at any gate other than the one reserved for the employer it is picketing. Sympathy strikes may be undertaken by a union as an organization or by individual union members choosing not to cross a picket line.

A jurisdictional strike in United States labor law refers to a concerted refusal to work undertaken by a union to assert its members’ right to particular job assignments and to protest the assignment of disputed work to members of another union or to unorganized workers.

A student strike has the students (sometimes supported by faculty) not attending schools. In some cases, the strike is intended to draw media attention to the institution so that the grievances that are causing the students to "strike" can be aired before the public; this usually damages the institution's (or government's) public image. In other cases, especially in government-supported institutions, the student strike can cause a budgetary imbalance and have actual economic repercussions for the institution.

A hunger strike is a deliberate refusal to eat. Hunger strikes are often used in prisons as a form of political protest. Like student strikes, a hunger strike aims to worsen the public image of the target.

A "sickout", or (especially by uniformed police officers) "blue flu", is a type of strike action in which the strikers call in sick. This is used in cases where laws prohibit certain employees from declaring a strike. Police, firefighters, air traffic controllers, and teachers in some U.S. states, are among the groups commonly barred from striking usually by state and federal laws meant to ensure the safety or security of the general public.

Newspaper writers may withhold their names from their stories as a way to protest actions of their employer.[16]

Activists may form "flying squad" groups for strikes or other actions to disrupt the workplace or another aspect of capitalism: supporting other strikers or unemployed workers, participating in protests against globalization, or opposing abusive landlords.[17]

Legal prohibitions[edit]


On 30 January 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that there is a constitutional right to strike.[18] In this 5–2 majority decision, Justice Rosalie Abella ruled that "[a]long with their right to associate, speak through a bargaining representative of their choice, and bargain collectively with their employer through that representative, the right of employees to strike is vital to protecting the meaningful process of collective bargaining..." [paragraph 24]. This decision adopted the dissent by Chief Justice Brian Dickson in a 1987 Supreme Court ruling on a reference case brought by the province of Alberta. The exact scope of this right to strike remains unclear and will no doubt be subject to further litigation. Prior to this Supreme Court decision, the federal and/or provincial governments would introduce "back to work legislation", a special law that blocks the strike action (or a lockout) from happening or continuing on further. Canadian governments would also impose binding arbitration or a new contract on the disputing parties. Back to work legislation was first used in 1950 during a railway strike, and as of 2012 has been used 33 times by the federal government for those parts of the economy that are regulated federally (grain handling, rail and air travel, and the postal service), and in more cases provincially. In addition, certain parts of the economy can be proclaimed "essential services" in which case all strikes are illegal.[19]

Examples include when the government of Canada passed back to work legislation during the 2011 Canada Post lockout and the 2012 CP Rail strike, thus effectively ending the strikes. In 2016, the government's use of back to work legislation during the 2011 Canada Post lockout was ruled unconstitutional, with the judge specifically referencing the Supreme Court of Canada's 2015 decision Saskatchewan Federation of Labour v Saskatchewan.[20]

People's Republic of China and the former Soviet Union[edit]

Main articles: Trade unions in the Soviet Union and All-China Federation of Trade Unions

In some Marxist–Leninist states, such as the former USSR or the People's Republic of China, striking was illegal and viewed as counter-revolutionary. Since the government in such systems claims to represent the working class, it has been argued that unions and strikes were not necessary.[citation needed] In 1976, China signed the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which guaranteed the right to unions and striking, but Chinese officials declared that they had no interest in allowing these liberties.[21] (In June 2008, however, the municipal government in Shenzhen in southern China introduced draft labor regulations, which labor rights advocacy groups say would, if implemented, virtually restore Chinese workers' right to strike.[22]) Trade unions in the Soviet Union served in part as a means to educate workers about the country's economic system. Vladimir Lenin referred to trade unions as "Schools of Communism." They were essentially state propaganda and control organs to regulate the workforce, also providing them with social activities.[citation needed]


In France, the right to strike is recognized and guaranteed by the Constitution.

A "minimum service" during strikes in public transport was a promise of Nicolas Sarkozy during his campaign for the French presidential election. A law "on social dialogue and continuity of public service in regular terrestrial transports of passengers" was adopted on 12 August 2007, and it took effect on 1 January 2008.

This law, among other measures, forces certain categories of public transport workers (such as train and bus drivers) to declare to their employer 48 hours in advance if they intend to go on strike. Should they go on strike without having declared their intention to do so beforehand, they leave themselves open to sanctions.

The unions did and still oppose this law and argue these 48 hours are used not only to pressure the workers but also to keep files on the more militant workers, who will more easily be undermined in their careers by the employers. Most importantly, they argue this law prevents the more hesitant workers from making the decision to join the strike the day before, once they've been convinced to do so by their colleagues and more particularly the union militants, who maximize their efforts in building the strike (by handing out leaflets, organizing meetings, discussing the demands with their colleagues) in the last few days preceding the strike. This law makes it also more difficult for the strike to spread rapidly to other workers, as they are required to wait at least 48 hours before joining the strike.

This law also makes it easier for the employers to organize the production as it may use its human resources more effectively, knowing beforehand who is going to be at work and not, thus undermining, albeit not that much, the effects of the strike.

However, this law has not had much effect as strikes in public transports still occur in France and at times, the workers refuse to comply by the rules of this law. The public transport industry - public or privately owned - remains very militant in France and keen on taking strike action when their interests are threatened by the employers or the government.

The public transport workers in France, in particular the "Cheminots" (employees of the national French railway company) are often seen as the most radical "vanguard" of the French working class. This law has not, in the eyes of many, changed this fact.

United Kingdom[edit]

The Industrial Relations Act 1971 was repealed through the Trade Union and Labour Relations Act 1974, sections of which were repealed by the Employment Act 1982.

The Code of Practice on Industrial Action Ballots and Notices, and sections 22 and 25 of the Employment Relations Act 2004, which concern industrial action notices, commenced on 1 October 2005.

Legislation was enacted in the aftermath of the 1919 police strikes, forbidding British police from both taking industrial action, and discussing the possibility with colleagues. The Police Federation which was created at the time to deal with employment grievances, and provide representation to police officers, has increasingly put pressure on the government, and repeatedly threatened strike action.[23]

Prison officers have gained and lost the right to strike over the years; most recently despite it being illegal, they walked out on 15 November 2016.[24]

United States[edit]

The Railway Labor Act bans strikes by United States airline and railroad employees except in narrowly defined circumstances. The National Labor Relations Act generally permits strikes, but provides a mechanism to enjoin strikes in industries in which a strike would create a national emergency. The federal government most recently invoked these statutory provisions to obtain an injunction requiring the International Longshore and Warehouse Union return to work in 2002 after having been locked out by the employer group, the Pacific Maritime Association.

Some jurisdictions prohibit all strikes by public employees, under laws such as the "Taylor Law" in New York. Other jurisdictions impose strike bans only on certain categories of workers, particularly those regarded as critical to society: police, teachers and firefighters are among the groups commonly barred from striking in these jurisdictions. Some states, such as New Jersey, Michigan, Iowa or Florida, do not allow teachers in public schools to strike. Workers have sometimes circumvented these restrictions by falsely claiming inability to work due to illness — this is sometimes called a "sickout" or "blue flu", the latter receiving its name from the uniforms worn by police officers, who are traditionally prohibited from striking. The term "red flu" has sometimes been used to describe this action when undertaken by firefighters.

Often, specific regulations on strike actions exist for employees in prisons. The Code of Federal Regulations declares "encouraging others to refuse to work, or to participate in a work stoppage" by prisoners to be a "High Severity Level Prohibited Act" and authorizes solitary confinement for periods of up to a year for each violation.[25] The California Code of Regulations states that "[p]articipation in a strike or work stoppage", "[r]efusal to perform work or participate in a program as ordered or assigned", and "[r]ecurring failure to meet work or program expectations within the inmate's abilities when lesser disciplinary methods failed to correct the misconduct" by prisoners is "serious misconduct" under §3315(a)(3)(L), leading to gang affiliation under CCR §3000.[26]

Postal workers involved in 1978 wildcat strikes in Jersey City, Kearny, New Jersey, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C. were fired under the presidency of Jimmy Carter, and President Ronald Reagan fired air traffic controllers and the PATCO union after the air traffic controllers' strike of 1981.


Main article: Strikebreaker

A strikebreaker (sometimes derogatorily called a scab, blackleg, or knobstick) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the company prior to the trade union dispute, but rather hired after or during the strike to keep the organization running. "Strikebreakers" may also refer to workers (union members or not) who cross picket lines to work.

Irwin, Jones, McGovern (2008) believe that the term 'scab' is part of a larger metaphor involving strikes. They argue that the picket line is symbolic of a wound and those who break its borders to return to work are the scabs who bond that wound. Others have argued that the word is not a part of a larger metaphor but, rather, originates from the old-fashioned English insult, "scab."

"Blackleg" is an older word and is found in the late-nineteenth/early-twentieth century folk song from Northumberland, "Blackleg Miner". The term does not necessarily owe its origins to this tune of unknown origin. The song is, however, notable for its lyrics that encourage violent acts against strikebreakers.

Union strikebreaking[edit]

The concept of union strikebreaking or union scabbing refers to any circumstance in which union workers themselves cross picket lines to work.

Unionized workers are sometimes required to cross the picket lines established by other unions due to their organizations having signed contracts which include no-strike clauses. The no-strike clause typically requires that members of the union not conduct any strike action for the duration of the contract; such actions are called sympathy or secondary strikes. Members who honor the picket line in spite of the contract frequently face discipline, for their action may be viewed as a violation of provisions of the contract. Therefore, any union conducting a strike action typically seeks to include a provision of amnesty for all who honored the picket line in the agreement that settles the strike.

No-strike clauses may also prevent unionized workers from engaging in solidarity actions for other workers even when no picket line is crossed. For example, striking workers in manufacturing or mining produce a product which must be transported. In a situation where the factory or mine owners have replaced the strikers, unionized transport workers may feel inclined to refuse to haul any product that is produced by strikebreakers, yet their own contract obligates them to do so.

Historically the practice of union strikebreaking has been a contentious issue in the union movement, and a point of contention between adherents of different union philosophies. For example, supporters of industrial unions, which have sought to organize entire workplaces without regard to individual skills, have criticized craft unions for organizing workplaces into separate unions according to skill, a circumstance that makes union strikebreaking more common. Union strikebreaking is not, however, unique to craft unions.

Antistrike action[edit]

Most strikes called by unions are somewhat predictable; they typically occur after the contract has expired. However, not all strikes are called by union organizations — some strikes have been called in an effort to pressure employers to recognize unions. Other strikes may be spontaneous actions by working people. Spontaneous strikes are sometimes called "wildcat strikes"; they were the key fighting point in May 1968 in France; most commonly, they are responses to serious (often life-threatening) safety hazards in the workplace rather than wage or hour disputes, etc.

Whatever the cause of the strike, employers are generally motivated to take measures to prevent them, mitigate the impact, or to undermine strikes when they do occur.

Strike preparation[edit]

Companies which produce products for sale will frequently increase inventories prior to a strike. Salaried employees may be called upon to take the place of strikers, which may entail advance training. If the company has multiple locations, personnel may be redeployed to meet the needs of reduced staff.

Companies may also take out strike insurance prior to an anticipated strike, to help offset the losses which the strike would cause.

One of the weapons traditionally wielded by already-established unions is strike action. Some companies may decline entirely to negotiate with the union, and respond to the strike by hiring replacement workers. This may create a crisis situation for strikers — do they stick to their original plan and rely upon their solidarity, or is there a chance that the strike may be lost? How long will the strike last? Will strikers' jobs still be there if the strike fails? Are other strikers defecting from the strike? Companies that hire strikebreakers typically play upon these fears when they attempt to convince union members to abandon the strike and cross the union's picket line.

Unions faced with a strikebreaking situation may try to inhibit the use of strikebreakers by a variety of methods — establishing picket lines where the strikebreakers enter the workplace; discouraging strike breakers from taking, or from keeping, strikebreaking jobs; raising the cost of hiring strikebreakers for the company; or employing public relations tactics. Companies may respond by increasing security forces and seeking court injunctions.

Examining conditions in the late 1990s, John Logan observed that union busting agencies helped to "transform economic strikes into a virtually suicidal tactic for U.S. unions." Logan further observed, "as strike rates in the United States have plummeted to historic low levels, the demand for strike management firms has also declined."[27]

In the U.S., as established in the National Labor Relations Act there is a legally protected right for private sector employees to strike to gain better wages, benefits, or working conditions and they cannot be fired. Striking for economic reasons (like protesting workplace conditions or supporting a union's bargaining demands) allows an employer to hire permanent replacements. The replacement worker can continue in the job and then the striking worker must wait for a vacancy. But if the strike is due to unfair labor practices, the strikers replaced can demand immediate reinstatement when the strike ends. If a collective bargaining agreement is in effect, and it contains a "no-strike clause", a strike during the life of the contract could result in the firing of all striking employees which could result in dissolution of that union. Although this is legal it could be viewed as union busting.

Strike breaking[edit]

Some companies negotiate with the union during a strike; other companies may see a strike as an opportunity to eliminate the union. This is sometimes accomplished by the importation of replacement workers, strikebreakers or "scabs". Historically, strike breaking has often coincided with union busting. It was also called 'Black legging' in the early 20th century, during the Russian socialist movement.[28]

Union busting[edit]

Main article: Union busting

One method of inhibiting or ending a strike is firing union members who are striking which can result in elimination of the union. Although this has happened it is rare due to laws regarding firing and "right to strike" having a wide range of differences in the US depending on whether union members are public or private sector. Laws also vary country to country. In the UK, "It is important to understand that there is no right to strike in UK law."[29] Employees who strike risk dismissal, unless it is an official strike (one called or endorsed by their union) in which case they are protected from unlawful dismissal, and cannot be fired for at least 12 weeks. UK laws regarding work stoppages and strikes are defined within the Employment Relations Act 1999 and the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992.

One of the most significant cases of mass-dismissals in the UK in 2005 involved the sacking of over 600 Gate Gourmet employees at Heathrow Airport,[30][31] to which the media responded with outrage. Under the direction of Gate Gourmet's HR Director Andy Cook, according to BBC: "Gate Gourmet sacked more than 600 staff last week in a working practices row, prompting a walkout by British Airways ground staff that paralysed flights and stranded thousands of travellers in the UK." Andy Cook, Gate Gourmet's director of human resources at that time, said: "The company had not been looking to cut the size of the protests, only stop the minority engaged in harassment."[32] Cook is now CEO of the UK labor relations advisory firm Marshall-James Global Solutions Ltd.[33]

In 1962 US President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order #10988[34] which permitted federal employees to form trade unions but prohibited strikes (codified in 1966 at 5 U.S.C. 7311 - Loyalty and Striking). In 1981, after public sector union PATCO (Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization) went on strike illegally, President Ronald Reagan fired all of the controllers. His action resulted in the dissolution of the union. PATCO reformed to become the National Air Traffic Controllers Association.

In the U.S., as established in the National Labor Relations Act there is a legally protected right for private sector employees to strike to gain better wages, benefits, or working conditions and they cannot be fired. Striking for economic reasons (i.e., protesting workplace conditions or supporting a union's bargaining demands) allows an employer to hire permanent replacements. The replacement worker can continue in the job and then the striking worker must wait for a vacancy. But if the strike is due to unfair labor practices (ULP), the strikers replaced can demand immediate reinstatement when the strike ends. If a collective bargaining agreement is in effect, and it contains a "no-strike clause", a strike during the life of the contract could result in the firing of all striking employees which could result in dissolution of that union.


Another counter to a strike is a lockout, the form of work stoppage in which an employer refuses to allow employees to work. Two of the three employers involved in the Caravan park grocery workers strike of 2003-2004 locked out their employees in response to a strike against the third member of the employer bargaining group. Lockouts are, with certain exceptions, lawful under United States labor law.


Main article: Anti-union violence

Historically, some employers have attempted to break union strikes by force. One of the most famous examples of this occurred during the Homestead Strike of 1892. Industrialist Henry Clay Frick sent private security agents from the Pinkerton National Detective Agency to break the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers strike at a Homestead, Pennsylvania steel mill. Two strikers were killed, twelve wounded, along with two Pinkertons killed and eleven wounded. In the aftermath, Frick was shot in the neck and then stabbed by Alexander Berkman, surviving the attack, while Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison.



  • Final Offer - A look at the 1984 contract negotiations between General Motors and its union.
  • Harlan County, USA, Director: Barbara Kopple, USA 1976–A documentary film about a very long and bitter strike of coal miners in Kentucky
  • American Dream, Director: Barbara Kopple, USA 1990 – A documentary film about the unsuccessful 1985-1986 meatpacker's strike against Hormel Foods in Austin, Minnesota.
  • Jimmy Hoffa, a labor union leader who ran the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) union from 1958 until 1971, was portrayed by Robert Blake in the 1983 TV-film Blood Feud, Trey Wilson in the 1985 television miniseries Robert Kennedy & His Times, and by Jack Nicholson in the 1992 biographical film Hoffa.
  • Bastard Boys, A miniseries based on the 1998 Australian waterfront dispute.
  • Made in Dagenham, A film about the strike by female employees at the Ford Motor company in the UK.
  • The Great Grunwick Strike 1976-1978 Director: Chris Thomas, Brent Trades Union Council (2007 film)


  • Statschka ("Strike"), Director: Sergei Eisenstein, Soviet Union 1924
  • Brüder ("Brother"), Director: Werner Hochbaum, Germany 1929–On the general strike in the port of Hamburg, Germany in 1896/97
  • The Stars Look Down, Director: Carol Reed, England 1939 – Film about a strike over safety standards at a coal mine in North-East England - based on the Cronin novel
  • The Grapes of Wrath a 1940 film by John Ford includes description of migrant workers striking, and its violent breaking by employers, assisted by the police. Based on the novel by John Steinbeck.
  • Salt of the Earth, Director: Herbert J. Biberman, USA 1953–Fictionalized account of an actual zinc-miners' strike in Silver City, New Mexico, in which women took over the picket line to circumvent an injunction barring "striking miners" from company property. The striking women were largely played by real members of the strike, and one woman was deported to Mexico while filming. The union organizer Clinton Jencks (from Jencks v. United States fame) also participated.
  • The Molly Maguires, Director: Martin Ritt, 1970 film starring Sean Connery and Richard Harris. Frustrated by the failure of strike action to achieve their industrial objectives, a secret society among Pennsylvania coal miners sabotages the mine with explosives to try to get what their industrial action failed to obtain. A Pinkerton agent infiltrates them.
  • F.I.S.T, Director: Norman Jewison, 1978 – loosely based on the Teamsters union and former president Jimmy Hoffa.
  • Norma Rae, Director: Martin Ritt, 1979.
  • Matewan, Director: John Sayles, 1987 – critically acclaimed account of a coal mine-workers' strike and attempt to unionize in 1920 in Matewan, a small town in the hills of West Virginia.
  • Made in Dagenham, 2010 – based on the strike at Fords plant in Dagenham, England, UK, which won equal pay for female workers.

Other uses[edit]

  • Sometimes, "to go on strike" is used figuratively for machinery or equipment not working due to malfunction, e.g. "My computer's on strike".

See also[edit]


Female tailors on strike, New York City, February 1910.
Agitated workers face the factory owner in The Strike, painted by Robert Koehler in 1886
A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike on 28 March 2006.
Lenin Shipyard workers, Poland, on strike in August 1980, with the Soviet-modeled trade union name crossed out in protest
Strikebreaking driver and cart being stoned during sanitation worker strike. New York City, 1911.
To bring public attention, a giant inflatable rat is used in the U.S. at the site of a labor dispute. The rat is meant to represent an unfair employer or strike-breaking replacement workers.
Strike, painting by Stanisław Lentz
Victims of a clash between striking workers and the army in Prostějov, Austria-Hungary, April 1917
  1. ^Aleksander Smolar, "Towards 'Self-limiting Revolution': Poland 1970-89", in Adam Roberts and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance and Power Politics: The Experience of Non-violent Action from Gandhi to the Present, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp. 127-43. This book contains accounts on certain other strike movements in other countries around the world aimed at overthrowing a regime or a foreign military presence.
  2. ^"". 
  3. ^"A body of Sunderland.., and at the cross there read a paper, setting forth their grievances... After this they went on board the several ships in that harbour, and struck (lowered down) their yards, in order to prevent them from proceeding to sea." (Ann. Reg. 92, 1768), quoted in Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., s.v. "strike, v.," sense 17; see also sense 24.
  4. ^Worrall, Simon (1 September 2014). "Were Modern Ideas—and the American Revolution—Born on Ships at Sea?". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014. 
  5. ^François Daumas, (1969). Ägyptische Kultur im Zeitalter der Pharaonen, pp. 309. Knaur Verlag, Munich
  6. ^John Romer, Ancient Lives; the story of the Pharaoh's Tombmakers. London: Phoenix Press, 1984, pp. 116-123 See also E.F. Wente, "A letter of complaint to the Vizier To", in Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 20, 1961 and W.F. Edgerton, "The strikes in Ramses III's Twenty-ninth year", Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 10, 1951.
  7. ^ abH.G. Wells, Outline Of History, Waverly Book Company, 1920, page 225
  8. ^F.C.Mather (1974). "The General Strike of 1842: A Study in Leadership, Organisation and the Threat of Revolution during the Plug Plot Disturbance". George Allen & Unwin Ltd London. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 
  9. ^"Origin and Function of the Party Form". 
  10. ^

0 Replies to “Essay On The Spate Of Strike Actions In Ghana 4”

Lascia un Commento

L'indirizzo email non verrà pubblicato. I campi obbligatori sono contrassegnati *