Assignments usually ask you to demonstrate that you have immersed yourself in the course material and that you've done some thinking on your own; questions not treated at length in class often serve as assignments. Fortunately, if you've put the time into getting to know the material, then you've almost certainly begun thinking independently. In responding to assignments, keep in mind the following advice.
- Beware of straying. Especially in the draft stage, "discussion" and "analysis" can lead you from one intrinsically interesting problem to another, then another, and then ... You may wind up following a garden of forking paths and lose your way. To prevent this, stop periodically while drafting your essay and reread the assignment. Its purposes are likely to become clearer.
- Consider the assignment in relation to previous and upcoming assignments. Ask yourself what is new about the task you're setting out to do. Instructors often design assignments to build in complexity. Knowing where an assignment falls in this progression can help you concentrate on the specific, fresh challenges at hand.
Understanding some key words commonly used in assignments also may simplify your task. Toward this end, let's take a look at two seemingly impenetrable instructions: "discuss" and "analyze."
1. Discuss the role of gender in bringing about the French Revolution.
- "Discuss" is easy to misunderstand because the word calls to mind the oral/spoken dimension of communication. "Discuss" suggests conversation, which often is casual and undirected. In the context of an assignment, however, discussion entails fulfilling a defined and organized task: to construct an argument that considers and responds to an ample range of materials. To "discuss," in assignment language, means to make a broad argument about a set of arguments you have studied. In the case above, you can do this by
- pointing to consistencies and inconsistencies in the evidence of gendered causes of the Revolution;
- raising the implications of these consistencies and/or inconsistencies (perhaps they suggest a limited role for gender as catalyst);
- evaluating different claims about the role of gender; and
- asking what is gained and what is lost by focusing on gendered symbols, icons and events.
A weak discussion essay in response to the question above might simply list a few aspects of the Revolution—the image of Liberty, the executions of the King and Marie Antoinette, the cry "Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite!"—and make separate comments about how each, being "gendered," is therefore a powerful political force. Such an essay would offer no original thesis, but instead restate the question asked in the assignment (i.e., "The role of gender was very important in the French Revolution" or "Gender did not play a large role in the French Revolution").
In a strong discussion essay, the thesis would go beyond a basic restatement of the assignment question. You might test the similarities and differences of the revolutionary aspects being discussed. You might draw on fresh or unexpected evidence, perhaps using as a source an intriguing reading that was only briefly touched upon in lecture.
2. Analyze two of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, including one not discussed in class, as literary works and in terms of sources/analogues.
The words "analyze" and "analysis" may seem to denote highly advanced, even arcane skills, possessed in virtual monopoly by mathematicians and scientists. Happily, the terms refer to mental activity we all perform regularly; the terms just need decoding. "Analyze" means two things in this specific assignment prompt.
- First, you need to divide the two tales into parts, elements, or features. You might start with a basic approach: looking at the beginning, middle, and end. These structural features of literary works—and of historical events and many other subjects of academic study—may seem simple or even simplistic, but they can yield surprising insights when examined closely.
- Alternatively, you might begin at a more complex level of analysis. For example, you might search for and distinguish between kinds of humor in the two tales and their sources in Boccaccio or the Roman de la Rose: banter, wordplay, bawdy jokes, pranks, burlesque, satire, etc.
- Second, you need to consider the two tales critically to arrive at some reward for having observed how the tales are made and where they came from (their sources/analogues). In the course of your essay, you might work your way to investigating Chaucer's broader attitude toward his sources, which alternates between playful variation and strict adherence. Your complex analysis of kinds of humor might reveal differing conceptions of masculine and feminine between Chaucer and his literary sources, or some other important cultural distinction.
Analysis involves both a set of observations about the composition or workings of your subject and a critical approach that keeps you from noticing just anything—from excessive listing or summarizing—and instead leads you to construct an interpretation, using textual evidence to support your ideas.
Some Final Advice
If, having read the assignment carefully, you're still confused by it, don't hesitate to ask for clarification from your instructor. He or she may be able to elucidate the question or to furnish some sample responses to the assignment. Knowing the expectations of an assignment can help when you're feeling puzzled. Conversely, knowing the boundaries can head off trouble if you're contemplating an unorthodox approach. In either case, before you go to your instructor, it's a good idea to list, underline or circle the specific places in the assignment where the language makes you feel uncertain.
Copyright 1998, William C. Rice, for the Writing Center at Harvard University
This page addresses assignment design and student guidance, paper submission and returning papers.
Assignment Design and Student Guidance
Course assignments, including papers, projects, iMovies, and other such work, should support the pedagogical goals of the course. If the TFs play a role in devising assignments and other forms of evaluation, the teaching staff may want to review the advice listed on the Creating Assignments and Exams page of the Bok Center’s website. For example, students writing longer essays or working on larger projects often find it helpful to work through stages, including writing a brief one-page prospectus. Gen Ed's Instructional Support Services Team (ISST) is also available to help guide students by visiting sections or holding workshops for students, among other options.
Many courses include information on the syllabus or on assignment sheets about when and where papers are to be submitted and returned. These instructions often include a stated expectation that students cite their sources carefully and correctly. The student’s responsibility for accurate citation is described in the section on plagiarism and collaboration in the Harvard College Handbook for Students and in the Harvard Writing Program's Writing with Internet Sources. See also Issues of Academic Integrity.
If papers are turned in at any time other than a lecture or section meeting, a member of the teaching staff must be present to receive them. Papers should never be submitted to an unsecured mailbox. Under no circumstances will the Gen Ed Office accept student papers on behalf of any member of the teaching staff.
If papers are to be submitted electronically, set up a “dropbox” topic box on the course website or have students submit their papers electronically to the course's Canvas site; students should not e-mail papers and assignments as attachments. TFs may print copies of these papers using the computers and printers in the Gen Ed Office.
If late papers are penalized according to an explicit formula, this should be a course-wide policy and students should be informed in advance. Teaching staff should contact students who have failed to turn in their papers after two or three days in order to ensure that there are no other serious issues present. This effort may identify students who think they have dropped the course, or whom you assume to have dropped the course, but are still listed on the Registrar’s enrollment list on your course website. It also identifies students who have been attending a section other than the one to which they were assigned. If a student is unresponsive, the TF should inform the Head TF and/or the course head and should contact the student’s Resident Dean as soon as possible.
The course head may decide that penalties for late papers will be waived under certain circumstances and specify how a student must document these circumstances. However, any extension of time beyond the end of Exam Period may only be granted by the Administrative Board of Harvard College. See Makeup Final Exams to learn more.
Papers can usually be returned at section meetings, specially designated office hours, or (if it is the end of the term) at the final exam. Under no circumstances should papers ever be left unattended outside a TF’s office or in any other public area, including open mail boxes. Students’ work, such as problem sets, exam booklets, or papers, should not be accessible to anyone other than the student who has submitted it, unless specifically authorized by that student. The Gen Ed Office cannot be asked to supervise the return of papers. Please note the following guidelines published in Information for Faculty Offering Instruction in Arts and Sciences:
It is the Faculty’s legal responsibility to maintain confidentiality of student grades and also of materials upon which evaluations are made. For this reason, instructors should not post grades by student name or student identification number. Furthermore, instructors should never make a student’s submitted work, such as problem sets, exam booklets, or papers, accessible to anyone other than the student who has submitted it, unless specifically authorized to do so by the author.